Lecture #3. Review: Power


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1 Lecture #3 OUTLINE Power calculations Circuit elements Voltage and current sources Electrical resistance (Ohm s law) Kirchhoff s laws Reading Chapter 2 Lecture 3, Slide 1 Review: Power If an element is absorbing power (i.e. if p > 0), positive charge is flowing from higher potential to lower potential. p = vi if the passive sign convention is used: i i _ + v or v _ + How can a circuit element absorb power? By converting electrical energy into heat (resistors in toasters), light (light bulbs), or acoustic energy (speakers); by storing energy (charging a battery). Lecture 3, Slide 2
2 Power Calculation Example Find the power absorbed by each element: Conservation of energy total power delivered equals total power absorbed vi (W) p (W) Lecture 3, Slide 3 Circuit Elements There are 5 ideal basic circuit elements: voltage source current source resistor inductor capacitor active elements, capable of generating electric energy passive elements, incapable of generating electric energy Many practical systems can be modeled with just sources and resistors The basic analytical techniques for solving circuits with inductors and capacitors are the same as those for resistive circuits Lecture 3, Slide 4
3 Electrical Sources An electrical source is a device that is capable of converting nonelectric energy to electric energy and vice versa. Examples: battery: chemical electric dynamo (generator/motor): mechanical electric Electrical sources can either deliver or absorb power Lecture 3, Slide 5 Ideal Voltage Source Circuit element that maintains a prescribed voltage across its terminals, regardless of the current flowing in those terminals. Voltage is known, but current is determined by the circuit to which the source is connected. The voltage can be either independent or dependent on a voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit, and can be constant or timevarying. Circuit symbols: v s +_ v s =µ v x +_ v s =ρ i x +_ independent voltagecontrolled currentcontrolled Lecture 3, Slide 6
4 Ideal Current Source Circuit element that maintains a prescribed current through its terminals, regardless of the voltage across those terminals. Current is known, but voltage is determined by the circuit to which the source is connected. The current can be either independent or dependent on a voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit, and can be constant or timevarying. Circuit symbols: i s i s =α v x i s =β i x independent voltagecontrolled currentcontrolled Lecture 3, Slide 7 Electrical Resistance Resistance is the capacity of a material to impede the flow of electric charge. The circuit element used to model this behavior is the resistor. R Circuit symbol: Units: Volts per Ampere ohms (Ω) The current flowing in the resistor is proportional to the voltage across the resistor: v = i R (Ohm s Law) where v = voltage (V), i = current (A), and R = resistance (Ω) Lecture 3, Slide 8
5 Electrical Conductance Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. Symbol: G Units: siemens (S) or mhos ( ) Ω Example: Consider an 8 Ω resistor. What is its conductance? Lecture 3, Slide 9 Short Circuit and Open Circuit Wire ( short circuit ): R = 0 no voltage difference exists (all points on the wire are at the same potential) Current can flow, as determined by the circuit Air ( open circuit ): R = no current flows Voltage difference can exist, as determined by the circuit Lecture 3, Slide 10
6 Circuit Nodes and Loops A node is a point where two or more circuit elements are connected. A loop is formed by tracing a closed path in a circuit through selected basic circuit elements without passing through any intermediate node more than once Example: Lecture 3, Slide 11 Kirchhoff s Laws Kirchhoff s Current Law (KCL): The algebraic sum of all the currents at any node in a circuit equals zero. Kirchhoff s Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of all the voltages around any loop in a circuit equals zero. Lecture 3, Slide 12
7 Example: Power Absorbed by a Resistor p = vi = ( ir )i = i 2 R p = vi = v ( v/r ) = v 2 /R Note that p > 0 always, for a resistor. Example: a) Calculate the voltage v g and current i a. b) Determine the power dissipated in the 80Ω resistor. Lecture 3, Slide 13 More Examples Are these interconnections permissible? Lecture 3, Slide 14
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